An evaluation of ASTM Method P-42-97 for sampling and analysis of metalworking fluids.
Glaser-RA; Shulman-S; Kurimo-R; Piacitelli-G
Appl Occup Environ Hyg 2003 Nov; 18(11):825-827
Exposure to certain metalworking fluids (MWF) has been correlated with outbreaks of occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), and, to a lesser extent, with cancer. There are many components of MWF but these fluids are generally categorized according to the amount of mineral oil that they contain. Straight fluids are primarily composed of mineral oils with other organic additives, are water-insoluble, and are used undiluted. The three other types of MWF are diluted with water during use. Soluble fluid concentrates contain up to 80 percent mineral oil with emulsifying agents added to form emulsions when mixed with water. Semi-synthetic fluid concentrates contain 5-30 percent mineral oil with surfactants added to make them water-soluble. Synthetic fluids contain no mineral oil and are completely water-soluble. In a 1998 criteria document,(1) the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) promulgated a recommended exposure limit (REL) for metalworking fluids of 0.4 mg/m3 measured as thoracic particulate (or 0.5 mg/m3 measured as total particulate). The criteria document further recommended that the exposure standard be supported using NIOSH Method 0500 (for total particulate), but recognized that "when there are simultaneous e,!-posures to nontoxic particulate materials, NIOSH Method 5026 or a similar method [emphasis added] may be useful to estimate the soluble component of the workroom aerosol." The separation of the soluble MWF from the insoluble particulate may be necessary due to interferences from many sources; for example, metal particulate from the metalworking processes themselves, fumes from nearby welding operations, agricultural debris in manufacturing plants located in rural areas, background dust generated during in-plant construction, and urban ambient air particulate material. Exposures to atmospheres containing MWF commingled)with such solid particulates are not properly classified as exposure only to MWF.
Metalworking-fluids; Analytical-methods; Quantitative-analysis; Detectors; Exposure-limits; Exposure-assessment; Laboratory-techniques; Particulate-sampling-methods; Particulates; Standards; Synthetic-materials; Materials-testing; Mineral-oils; Cutting-oils
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Research Tools and Approaches: Exposure Assessment Methods
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene