Exposure to carbon nanotube material: assessment of nanotube cytotoxicity using human keratinocyte cells.
Shvedova-AA; Castranova-V; Kisin-ER; Schwegler-Berry-D; Murray-AR; Gandelsman-VZ; Maynard-A; Baron-P
J Toxicol Environ Health, A 2003 Oct; 66(20):1909-1926
Carbon nanotubes are new members of carbon allotropes similar to fullerenes and graphite. Because of their unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties, carbon nanotubes are important for novel applications in the electronics, aerospace, and computer industries. Exposure to graphite and carbon materials has been associated with increased incidence of skin diseases, such as carbon fiber dermatitis, hyperkeratosis, and naevi. We investigated adverse effects of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) using a cell culture of immortalized human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). After 18 h of exposure of HaCaT to SWCNT, oxidative stress and cellular toxicity were indicated by formation of free radicals, accumulation of peroxidative products, antioxidant depletion, and loss of cell viability. Exposure to SWCNT also resulted in ultrastructural and morphological changes in cultured skin cells. These data indicate that dermal exposure to unrefined SWCNT may lead to dermal toxicity due to accelerated oxidative stress in the skin of exposed workers.
Cytotoxicity; Electrical-properties; Occupational-exposure; Skin-diseases; Dermatitis; Cell-cultures; Stress; Antioxidants; Skin-exposure; Nanotechnology
Anna A. Shvedova, Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, NIOSH, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
Disease and Injury: Allergic and Irritant Dermatitis
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues