NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search
Safe alternative solvents for antibiotics extraction.
Clark JF; Evenson CE
NIOSH 2002 Jul; :1-16
This research resulted in identification of non-volatile, non-flammable room temperature ionic liquids (RTIL's) to replace the toxic, flammable, volatile organic compound (VOC) solvents now used for extraction of antibiotics from fermentation broths. The solvents used for penicillin extraction include methyl isobutyl ketone, amyl acetate, butyl acetate, and chloroform. These solvents are toxic, irritants, volatile, and/or extremely flammable. RTIL's have attracted significant attention for green chemistry applications. They are ionic compounds that have very large liquidus ranges. Some are air and water stable and immiscible with water. They solubilize aromatics and carbonyl-containing compounds particularly well, and were found to be effective for penicillin-G extraction. RTIL's have previously been studied for liquid-liquid extraction and other separations.. Being non-volatile, they are recyclable, and their large liquidus ranges allow efficient separations using temperature control. They are non-flammable, and are "tunable" solvents, as the cations can be substituted and/or paired with different anions to manipulate the properties of the liquids and tailor them for specific applications. The use of RTIL's instead of the toxic, flammable, VOC solvents now used would improve the health and safety of pharmaceutical workers, and reduce costs, since they are straightforward to synthesize. New processes or equipment would not be required.
Solvents; Antibiotics; Control-technology; Chemical-extraction; Chemical-structure; Chemical-synthesis; Pharmaceutical-industry; Pharmaceuticals
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Research Tools and Approaches: Control Technology and Personal Protective Equipment
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
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Page last reviewed: September 2, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division