The goals of this research were to quantify the associations of psychosocial and biomechanical stressors with indicators of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and stress disorders and to examine how organizational characteristics affect these relationships. The investigation analyzed a large database, the Monitor Study, collected in the Netherlands. This database includes interviews from a representative sampling of employers in 782 companies and questionnaires administered to randomized samples of employees in 528 of these companies (n = 7,717). From the employee questionnaires, four psychosocial stressor scales (Demands, Autonomy, Skill Discretion and Social Support) and four biomechanical stressor scales (Repetitive Bend/Twist, Static Bend/Twist, Reaching/Prolonged Postures, and Physical Exertion) were constructed. MSD indicators were represented by reports of physical strain and pain. Indicators of stress disorders were reports of exhaustion and tiredness. Both MSD and stress disorders are measured by outcomes of extended sick leave (>3 mo.) and partial disability. Employer interviews provided parallel estimates of stressor levels as well as company level measures (economic branch, size, disability insurance structure, % temporary workers, market position, etc.). After examining univariate relationships, multivariate linear and logistic models were developed at the individual and company levels. The research design carried out a multilevel analysis of the associations between organizational characteristics, individual-level psychosocial and physical stressors, intermediate measures of musculoskeletal and psychological strain and the health-related outcomes of absenteeism and disability.