Worker exposure assessment and hazard surveillance.
NIOSH 2002 Mar; :1-173
There are two significant results from our work, one the identification and specification of the nature of a major unresolved challenge for risk assessment relating to multiple agent exposure and the second significant progress on an approach to the characterization and study of this class of occupational exposures. In particular, in our studies of approaches to assessing the cumulative health risks from aggregate exposures to ionizing radiation and chemicals, we found in the literature essentially no guidance for conducting risk assessment for two agents with different mechanisms of action (i.e., energy deposition from ionizing radiation versus DNS interactions with chemicals) but similar biological endpoints (i.e., chromosomal aberrations, mutations, and cancer). Our analysis reveals that this is due to the absence of both the basic science and an appropriate evaluation framework for the combined effects of mixed-agent exposures. This makes it difficult to determine whether there is truly no interaction or somehow the interaction is masked by the scale of effect observation or inappropriate dose-response assumptions. An evaluation framework is proposed. In a new approach to characterizing multiple agent exposure, we have developed a computer simulation approach that utilizes both qualitative and quantitative workplace data for the purpose of both forecasting the complex multivariate nature of these exposures as well as to plan efficient and cost effective exposure measurement and surveillance programs. We feel that this approach circumvents inherently costly approaches based on measurements alone.
Ionizing-radiation; Chromosome-damage; Cancer; Mutation; Mutagenesis; Mutagenicity; Synergism; Nuclear-hazards; Computer-models; Lung; Lung-disorders; Video-display-terminals; Ergonomics; Protective-clothing; Heat-stress
78-93-3; 67-64-1; 100-42-5; 96-09-3; 106-99-0
Final Grant Report
Mixed Exposures; Work Environment And Workforce
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
University of California, Los Angeles, California