Metal working fluids: sub-chronic effects on pulmonary functions in B6C3F1 mice given vitamin E deficient and sufficient diets.
Shvedova-AA; Kisin-E; Murray-A; Goldsmith-T; Reynolds-JS; Castranova-V; Frezer-DG; Kommineni-C
Toxicology 2002 Aug; 177(2-3):285-297
Metal working fluids (MWFs) have been widely known to cause asthma and neoplasia of the larynx, pancreas, rectum, skin and urinary bladder (Textbook of Clinical Occupational and Environmental Medicine (1994) 814; Am. J. Ind. Med. 32 (1997) 240; Am. J. Ind. Med. 33 (1997) 282; Am. J. Ind. Med. 22 (1994) 185). Other non-neoplastic respiratory effects in industrial workers attributed to MWFs include increased rates of cough, phlegm production, wheeze, chronic bronchitis and chest tightness (Eur. J. Resir. Dis. 63(118) (1982), 79; J. Occup. Med. 24 (1982) 473; Am. J. Ind. Med. 32 (1997) 450). The epidemic and endemic nature of immune mediated lung morbidity commonly known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis in workers from several different industries using MWFs has been well documented (J. Allergy clin. Immunol. 91 (1993) 311; Chest 108 (1995) 636; MMWR45 (1996) 606; Am. J. Ind. Med. 32 (1997) 423). We studied morphological/functional and antioxidant outcomes in lungs after inhalation exposure of vitamin E deficient mice to MWF (27 mg m(-3) 17 weeks, 5 days a week, 6 h a day). Mice were given vitamin E deficient (<10 IU kg(-1) vitamin E) or basal diets (50 IU kg(-1) vitamin E) for 35 weeks. Inhalation exposure to MWF started after 18 weeks on diet. Microscopic observation of lungs from mice given vitamin E deficient or sufficient diets revealed no inflammation or morphological alteration after exposure to MWF. Mice given vitamin E deficient diet exhibited a significant decrease (P<0.05) in breathing rate, peak inspiratory/expiratory flow, minute ventilation, and tidal volume compared with sufficient controls. However, no differences were found after exposure to MWF in pulmonary function, with the exception of tidal volume which also significantly decreased (P<0.05). Exposure to MWF reduced vitamin E, protein thiol and ascorbate level in lungs. Exposure to MWF in combination with a vitamin E deficient diet resulted in significantly enhanced accumulation of peroxidative products compared with vitamin E deficient controls. This is the first report that describes the increase of oxidative stress in the lungs after MWF exposure.
Metal-compounds; Fluids; Pulmonary-function; Laboratory-animals; Animal-studies; Animals; Bronchial-asthma; Bladder-disease; Bladder-disorders; Respiratory-system-disorders; Lung-disorders; Antioxidants; Metalworking-fluids; Metalworking; Metalworking-industry; Skin-irritants; Dermatosis; Dermatitis
Health Effects Laboratory Division, Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Engineering Control and Technology Branch, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, CDC, MS 2015 1095, Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
Disease and Injury: Allergic and Irritant Dermatitis