Retrospective exposure assessment for radiological technologists.
Neton-J; Wenzl-T; Cardarelli-J; Utterback-D
Radiat Res 2002 Dec; 158(6):804-805
In 1982, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) initiated a study of cancer incidence and mortality among radiological technologists in the United States. A cohort of approximately 146,000 technologists who were certified by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) for at least 2 years during the period 1926-1982 was identified for study. The cohort is predominantly female with a current average age of 53 years. The NCI staff have collected extensive work history and health outcome data for the cohort members through the administration of two separate surveys, both of which had more than 90,000 respondents. In addition, the NCI has obtained approximately 1.3 million annual dosimetry badge readings for cohort members from 1977 through 1998. Several reports on the health effects observed in the cohort have been published previously without a substantial assessment of exposure (1. 2). One of these studies reported an excess of breast cancer associated with duration of employment which may be a surrogate for cumulative exposure. In a collaborative agreement with the National Cancer Institute, researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health have participated in an effort to retrospectively assess the occupational radiation exposure for this unique cohort. Because the quality, quantity and type of available exposure information varied considerably over time, it was recognized at the outset that several different exposure assessment strategies would be necessary. This is consistent with other studies that attempted to reconstruct exposures over long periods (3). Depending on availability of data, the assessment approach must incorporate the appropriate elements of either quantitative statistical or deterministic models. A summary of our findings for each of three exposure periods is presented below.
Radiology; Radiologists; Cancer; Cancer-rates; Mortality-rates; Demographic-characteristics; Occupational-exposure; Radiation; Radiation-exposure; Models
The Health Related Energy Research Branch, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226
Research Tools and Approaches: Exposure Assessment Methods