On March 19, 2003, a 53-year-old male volunteer Captain (the victim) was killed while enroute to a hazardous materials (Hazmat) training exercise. The victim was riding in Engine 91(E91) on the front passenger side when it left the roadway and careened into a ditch. After traveling over a hundred feet in the ditch, the Engine struck a tree on the front passenger side of the vehicle. The victim was pinned in his seat by the wreckage, and although extrication was attempted shortly thereafter, the victim died of his injuries while inside the apparatus. NIOSH investigators concluded that, to minimize the risk of similar occurrences, fire departments should: 1. develop and enforce standard operating procedures (SOPs) on the safe and prudent operation of emergency vehicles; 2. ensure that drivers of fire department vehicles receive driver training at least twice a year; and, 3. develop a pre-incident planning program to include deployment of resources.