Pregnancy hormone metabolite patterns, pregnancy symptoms, and coffee consumption.
Lawson-CC; LeMasters-GK; Levin-LS; Liu-JH
Am J Epidemiol 2002 Sep; 156(5):428-437
Because of contradictory reports of pregnancy outcomes and coffee intake, this study was designed to determine how hormone metabolite levels, symptoms, and coffee consumption patterns are related. Eligible subjects were recruited in Cincinnati, Ohio, from 1996 to 1998, aged 18–40 years, and nonsmokers; drank at least 18 ounces (1 ounce = 29.6 ml) of coffee per week (including decaffeinated) at the last menstrual period; and were enrolled by 9 weeks from the last menstrual period. Beverage consumption and pregnancy symptoms were recorded daily. Weekly, first-morning urine samples were collected to assess human chorionic gonadotropin, estrone-3-glucuronide, and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide. A time-dependent, repeated measures analysis was performed to test several associations. Data from 92 subjects were analyzed with the following results. 1) Coffee consumption was significantly, inversely associated with weekly levels of estrone-3-glucuronide and human chorionic gonadotropin. 2) Weekly hours of nausea were significantly, directly associated with human chorionic gonadotropin and inversely with estrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide. 3) Weekly coffee consumption was significantly associated with vomiting but not with nausea or appetite loss. 4) Weekly levels of pregnanediol-3-glucuronide were 32.2% lower in subjects who drank at least 8 ounces of coffee/day at the last menstrual period, though above what was necessary to maintain those pregnancies. This study shows the significance of these important variables to be considered in future research.
Gonadotropic-hormones; Pregnancy; Prenatal-exposure; Hormones; Hormone-activity; Metabolites; Estrogenic-hormones; Time-weighted-average-exposure;
Author Keywords: caffeine; coffee; estrogens; gonadotropins, chorionic; nausea; pregnancy; progesterone
Dr. Christina C. Lawson, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Mailstop R-15, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998
Disease and Injury: Fertility and Pregnancy Abnormalities
American Journal of Epidemiology