Dermal disposition of triazine in cutting fluid mixtures.
Baynes-RE; Brooks-JD; Barlow-BM; Riviere-JE
Toxicologist 2003 Mar; 72(S-1):381
Triazine is often added as a biocide/perservative to cutting fluids formulations used in the metal machine industry. Workers involved in metal machining are not only exposed to components in these cutting fluids, but biocides such as triazine which have been implicated in occupational contact irritant dermatitis (OCID). Little is known about how these cutting fluids and their ingredients influence the dermal disposition of triazine. The purpose of this study was to assess C^14 -triazine membrane transport when topically applied to inert silastic membranes and porcine skin in in vitro flow-through diffusion cell system as aqueous mineral oil (MO) or aqueous polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixtures. C14-triazine mixtures were formulated with 3 commonly used cutting fluid additives; namely, 0 or 5% linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), 0 or 5% triethanolamine (TEA), and 0 or 5% sulfurized ricinoleic acid (SRA). Triazine partitioning from the formulation into the stratum corneum (SC) was significantly reduced by LAS, while SRA significantly reduced the pH of the formulation. Triazine absorption ranged from 2.24 to 3.9% dose in porcine skin and 12.61 to 18.63% dose in silastic membranes. In silastic membranes, the complete mixture significantly reduced triazine absorption in MO-based mixtures, while in PEG-based mixtures triazine absorption and apparent permeability were significantly increased. In porcine skin, triazine permeability was significantly increased for both MO- and PEG-based complete mixtures and the trend was for greater triazine absorption in more complex PEG-based mixtures. Interestingly, SRA or TEA alone significantly reduced triazine absorption in MO-based mixtures, and this interaction appears to be more additive than synergistic. Although the physiochemical experiments suggest otherwise, triazine readily permeates a homogenous lipid membrane such as the SC, while triazine permeability and absorption was significantly enhanced by the complete mixture especially in PEG-based mixtures.
Metal-industry; Biocides; Preservatives; Occupational-dermatitis; Occupational-exposure; Irritants; Dermatitis; Workers; In-vitro-studies; Cutting-oils
Disease and Injury: Allergic and Irritant Dermatitis
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 42nd Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, Cutting-Edge Science, Networking, New Perspectives, March 9-13, 2003, Salt Lake City, Utah
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC