Direct evidence for recycling of myeloperoxidase-catalyzed phenoxyl radicals of a vitamin E homologue, 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-hydroxy chromane, by ascorbate/dihydrolipoate in living HL-60 cells.
Kagan-VE; Kuzmenko-AI; Shvedova-AA; Kisin-ER; Li-R; Martin-I; Quinn-PJ; Tyurin-VA; Tyurina-YY; Yalowich-JC
Biochim Biophys Acta 2003 Mar; 1620(1-3):72-84
Myeloperoxidase (MPO)-catalyzed one-electron oxidation of endogenous phenolic constituents (e.g., antioxidants, hydroxylated metabolites) and exogenous compounds (e.g., drugs, environmental chemicals) generates free radical intermediates: phenoxyl radicals. Reduction of these intermediates by endogenous reductants, i.e. recycling, may enhance their antioxidant potential and/or prevent their potential cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. The goal of this work was to determine whether generation and recycling of MPO-catalyzed phenoxyl radicals of a vitamin E homologue, 2,2,5,7,8-pentamethyl-6-hydroxychromane (PMC), by physiologically relevant intracellular reductants such as ascorbate/lipoate could be demonstrated in intact MPO-rich human leukemia HL-60 cells. A model system was developed to show that MPO/H(2)O(2)-catalyzed PMC phenoxyl radicals (PMC(z.rad;)) could be recycled by ascorbate or ascorbate/dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) to regenerate the parent compound. Absorbance measurements demonstrated that ascorbate prevents net oxidation of PMC by recycling the phenoxyl radical back to the parent compound. The presence of DHLA in the reaction mixture containing ascorbate extended the recycling reaction through regeneration of ascorbate. DHLA alone was unable to prevent PMC oxidation. These conclusions were confirmed by direct detection of PMC(z.rad;) and ascorbate radicals formed during the time course of the reactions by EPR spectroscopy. Based on results in the model system, PMC(z.rad;) and ascorbate radicals were identified by EPR spectroscopy in ascorbate-loaded HL-60 cells after addition of H(2)O(2) and the inhibitor of catalase, 3-aminotriazole (3-AT). The time course of PMC(z.rad;) and ascorbate radicals was found to follow the same reaction sequence as during their recycling in the model system. Recycling of PMC by ascorbate was also confirmed by HPLC assays in HL-60 cells. Pre-loading of HL-60 cells with lipoic acid regenerated ascorbate and thus increased the efficiency of ascorbate in recycling PMC(z.rad;). Lipoic acid had no effect on PMC oxidation in the absence of ascorbate. Thus PMC phenoxyl radical does not directly oxidize thiols but can be recycled by dihydrolipoate in the presence of ascorbate. The role of phenoxyl radical recycling in maintaining antioxidant defense and protecting against cytotoxic and genotoxic phenolics is discussed.
Antioxidants; Antioxidation; Drugs; Environmental-contamination; Cytotoxic-effects; Models; Genotoxic-effects
Dr. Valerian E. Kagan, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, 3343 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh,PA 15260
Disease and Injury: Allergic and Irritant Dermatitis
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta