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Improving risk assessment: toxicological research needs.
Toraason M; Andersen M; Bogdanffy MS; Dankovic D; Faustman E; Foster P; Frederick C; Haber L; Kimmel CA; Lewis S; McClellan R; Melnick R; Mirer F; Morgan K; Schaeffer V; Silbergeld E; Slikker W; Swenberg J; Vainio H
Hum Ecol Risk Assess 2002 Oct; 8(6):1405-1419
A workshop convened to define research needs in toxicology identified several deficiencies in data and methods currently applied in risk assessment. The workshop panel noted that improving the link between chemical exposure and toxicological response requires a better understanding of the biological basis for inter- and intra-human variability and susceptibility. This understanding will not be complete unless all life stages are taken into consideration. Because animal studies serve as a foundation for toxicological assessment, proper accounting for cross-species extrapolation is essential. To achieve this, adjustments for dose-rate effects must be improved, which will aid in extrapolating toxicological responses to low doses and from short-term exposures. Success depends on greater use of validated biologically based dose response models that include pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data. Research in these areas will help define uncertainty factors and reduce reliance on underlying default assumptions. Throughout the workshop the panel recognized that biomedical science and toxicology in particular is on the verge of a revolution because of advances in genomics and proteomics. Data from these high-output technologies are anticipated to greatly improve risk assessment by enabling scientists to better define and model the elements of the relationship between exposure to biological hazards and health risks in populations with differing susceptibilities.
Risk-analysis; Epidemiology; Mathematical-models; Statistical-analysis; Dose-response; Pharmacodynamics; Animal-studies; Laboratory-animals; Author Keywords: susceptibility; life stages; pharmacokinetics; dose response; exposure assessment; genomics
Mark Toraason, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, MS C-23, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226
Stayner-L; Toraason-M; Hattis-D
Issue of Publication
Research Tools and Approaches: Risk Assessment Methods
Human and Ecological Risk Assessment
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Page last reviewed: February 14, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division