Field measurement of lead in workplace air and paint chip samples by ultrasonic extraction and portable anodic stripping voltammetry.
J Environ Monit 2002 Feb; 4(1):156-161
On-site measurement of lead in workplace air filter samples and paint chip samples by ultrasonic extraction and anodic stripping voltammetry (UE-ASV) was evaluated in the field during renovation and remodeling activities in residences having leaded paint. Aerosol and paint samples were collected using standard techniques, and the samples were analyzed on-site for lead content by portable UE-ASV. Lead in sample extracts was subsequently determined by atomic absorption (AA) spectrometry in a fixed-site laboratory. The remaining sample extracts plus undissolved material (air filters or paint particles) were then subjected to hot plate digestion in concentrated nitric acid-30% hydrogen peroxide prior to AA analysis for lead. Field UE-ASV lead data were thereby compared to UE-AA and hot plate digestion-AA results from fixed-site laboratory lead measurement. Determination of lead in air filter samples by UE-ASV (over the range of 5 microg to approximately 800 microg Pb per sample) was extremely well correlated with lead measurement by UE-AA and hot plate digestion-AA procedures. However, a significant negative bias associated with ASV measurement was observed, and this was attributed to a matrix effect. Lead measurement in paint chip samples by UE-ASV (over the range of approximately 10 to approximately 550 microg Pb g(-1)) was well correlated with lead measurement by UE-AA and hot plate digestion-AA procedures. However, correlation and precision were lower for lead measurement in paint samples as compared to aerosol samples, and a negative bias was also observed. Lead measurements by UE-AA were compared to lead determinations by hot plate digestion-AA; these data were highly correlated and demonstrated no significant bias. Thus it was concluded that the ultrasonic extraction procedure performed equivalently to hot plate digestion. It was reasoned that matrix effects due to the preparation and analysis of paint chip particles resulted in greater imprecision as well as negative bias by ASV measurement. Despite significant negative bias in this sample set, UE-ASV offers promise for on-site measurement of lead in samples of interest in occupational and environmental health.
Lead-fumes; Lead-dust; Air-filters; Paints; Ultrasonic-testing; Construction-workers
US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Preventiont, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati OH 45226-1998, USA
Research Tools and Approaches: Exposure Assessment Methods
Journal of Environmental Monitoring