NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search
Pulmonary alterations associated with inhalation of occupational and environmental irritants.
Castranova-V; Frazer-DG; Manley-LK; Dey-RD
Int Immunopharmacol 2002 Feb; 2(2-3):163-172
Many gases, vapors, or particles found in occupational and/or environmental settings can act as irritants. In the present study, sensory irritants are characterized by the stimulation of neuropeptide release from sensory nerves in the nasal mucosa, while pulmonary irritants are characterized by recruitment of PMN into bronchoalveolar airspaces, elevation of breathing frequency, and neuropeptide release from sensory fibers innervating the epithelium of the conducting airways. A review of data from our laboratory as well as results from others indicate that asphalt fume is a sensory irritant; toluene diisocyanate (TDI), methyl isocyanate, and machining fluid act as both sensory and pulmonary irritants; while cotton dust, agricultural dusts, microbial products, leather conditioner, and ozone exhibit responses characteristic of pulmonary irritants.
Pulmonary-system-disorders; Nasal-disorders; Occupational-respiratory-disease; Breathing; Animal-studies; Laboratory-animals; Sensory-motor-system; Respiratory-irritants; Cotton-dust; Microorganisms; In-vitro-studies
Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505
584-84-9; 624-83-9; 10028-15-6
Issue of Publication
Work Environment and Workforce: Mixed Exposures
Page last reviewed: April 12, 2019
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division