Development of sampling and analytical methods for concerted determination of commonly used chloroacetanilide, chlorotriazine, and 2,4-D herbicides in hand-wash, dermal-patch, and air samples.
Sampling and analytical methods were developed for commonly used chloroacetanilide, chlorotriazine, and 2,4-D herbicides in hand washes, on dermal patches, and in air. Eight herbicides selected for study were alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), metolachlor, simazine, and two esters of 2,4-D, the 2-butoxyethyl ester (2,4-D, BE) and the 2-ethylhexyl ester (2,4-D, EH). The hand-wash method consisted of shaking the worker's hand in 150 mL of isopropanol in a polyethylene bag for 30 seconds. The dermal-patch method entailed attaching a 10-cm x 10-cm x 0.6-cm polyurethane foam (PUF) patch to the worker for exposure; recovery of the herbicides was achieved by extraction with 40 mL of isopropanol. The air method involved sampling with an OVS-2 tube (which contained an 11-mm quartz fiber filter and two beds of XAD-2 resin) and recovery with 2 mL of 10:90 methanol:methyl t-butyl ether. Analysis of each of the three sample types was performed by gas chromatography with an electron-capture detector. Diazomethane in solution was employed to convert 2,4-D as the free acid to the methyl ester in each of the three methods for ease of gas chromatography. Silicic acid was added to sample solutions to quench excess diazomethane. Limits of detection for all eight herbicides were matrix-dependent and, generally, less than 1 microgram per sample for each matrix. Sampling and analytical methods met NIOSH evaluation criteria for all herbicides in hand-wash samples, for seven herbicides in air samples (all herbicides except cyanazine), and for six herbicides in dermal-patch samples (all herbicides except cyanazine and 2,4-D). Speciation of 2,4-D esters and simultaneous determination of 2,4-D acid were possible without losses of the esters or of other herbicides (acetanilides and triazines) being determined.