An evaluation of short-term exposures to metalworking fluids in small machine shops.
O'Brien-DM; Piacitelli-GM; Sieber-WK; Hughes-RT; Catalano-JD
Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 2001 May/Jun; 62(3):342-348
In a study of 23 small machining shops using metalworking fluids (MWFs), real-time air monitoring using an aerosol photometer was performed to investigate the temporal nature of the exposure and to examine the relationship between the instrumental measurements and traditional sampling methods. Time-weighted averages were calculated from the aerosol photometer data and the results were compared to collocated thoracic and 37-mm closed face cassette samplers. The filter samples were analyzed for total mass and the solvent extractable fraction. Depending on the averaging period used, short-term MWF concentrations exceeded 2.0 mg/m3 in 13 to 39% of the plants studied. High short-term exposures were as likely to be found in plants with average concentrations below 0.4 mg/m3 (thoracic-gravimetric) as those above. Regression analyses indicated that the aerosol photometer most closely matched the data obtained from the thoracic fraction of the total mass. In general, the aerosol photometer overestimated the levels determined using the thoracic cyclone and filter, especially when measuring concentrations of water-based fluids. Use of a calibration factor of 0.7 for straight oils or 0.5 for water-based fluids may assist in the interpretation of aerosol photometer measurements if field calibration data are not readily available. Several approaches to determining the calibration factor from field data were evaluated; more complex calibration techniques improved the accuracy of the measurements.
Metalworking; Metalworking-fluids; Machine-shop-workers; Exposure-levels; Air-monitoring; Sampling-methods; Aerosols; Aerosol-sampling
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal