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Titanium, zirconium, and hafnium.
Murthy LI; Dankovic DA; Murthy R
Patty's toxicology, fifth edition. Bingham E, Cohrssen B, Powell CH, eds., New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2000 Nov; :677-745
Titanium, zirconium, and hafnium belong to the transition Group IV B elements of the periodic table. A characteristic feature of these transition elements is the ease with which they form stable complex ions. Features that contribute to this ability are favorably high charge-to-radius ratios and the availability of unfilled d orbitals. The facility in forming metallic bonds is demonstrated by the existence of a wide variety of alloys among different transition metals. Another feature of these metals is characterized by their high densities, high melting points, and low vapor pressures. Within this group, these properties tend to increase with increasing atomic weight. This chapter discusses the chemical and physical properties followed by the toxicity of each chemical and compound in three sections: Section A provides details on titanium, Section B on zirconium, and Section C on hafnium. Table 35.1 presents the atomic number, atomic weight, and natural isotopes of titanium, zirconium, and hafnium.
Toxicology; Toxicopathology; Toxic effects; Titanium compounds; Zirconium compounds; Hafnium compounds
7440-32-6; 13463-67-7; 7550-45-0; 1271-19-8; 7440-67-7; 12010-33-2; 12045-64-6; 12045-28-8; 12046-91-2; 13777-25-8; 12020-14-3; 10026-11-6; 13762-26-0; 7783-64-4; 7704-99-6; 14475-63-9; 13986-26-0; 13746-89-9; 25658-42-8; 10101-52-7; 12039-90-6; 12039-15-5; 7446-31-3; 14644-61-2; 13520-92-8; 7699-43-6; 1314-23-4; 7699-43-6; 13826-66-9; 7440-58-6; 12228-27-2; 13777-22-5; 13499-05-3; 13709-52-9; 12770-26-2; 25817-87-2; 13870-13-8; 12055-23-1; 14456-34-9; 12325-59-6; 12162-21-9; 12401-56-8; 18855-94-2; 15823-43-5; 12007-23-7; 32342-52-2; 25869-93-6; 12069-85-1; 13777-23-6; 12070-08-5; 7705-07-9; 7704-98-5; 12039-13-3; 10363-61-0
Book or book chapter
Bingham E; Cohrssen B; Powell CH
Patty's toxicology. fifth edition
Page last reviewed: June 15, 2021
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division