Distribution of particulate matter and tissue remodeling in the human lung.
Pinkerton KE; Green FHY; Saiki C; Vallyathan V; Plopper CG; Gopal V; Hung D; Bahne EB; Lin SS; Menache MG; Schenker MB
Environ Health Perspect 2000 Nov; 108(11):1063-1069
We examined the relationship between intrapulmonary particle distribution of carbonaceous and mineral dusts and remodeling of the airways along anatomically distinct airway paths in the lungs of Hispanic males from the central valley of California. Lung autopsy specimens from the Fresno County Coroner's Office were prepared by intratracheal instillation of 2% glutaraldehyde at 30 cm H(2)O pressure. Two distinct airway paths into the apico-posterior and apico-anterior portions of the left upper lung lobe were followed. Tissue samples for histologic analysis were generally taken from the intrapulmonary second, fourth, sixth, and ninth airway generations. Parenchymal tissues beyond the 12th airway generation of each airway path were also analyzed. There was little evidence of visible particle accumulation in the larger conducting airways (generations 2-6), except in bronchial-associated lymphoid tissues and within peribronchial connective tissue. In contrast, terminal and respiratory bronchioles arising from each pathway revealed varying degrees of wall thickening and remodeling. Walls with marked thickening contained moderate to heavy amounts of carbonaceous and mineral dusts. Wall thickening was associated with increases in collagen and interstitial inflammatory cells, including dust-laden macrophages. These changes were significantly greater in first-generation respiratory bronchioles compared to second- and third-generation respiratory bronchioles. These findings suggest that accumulation of carbonaceous and mineral dust in the lungs is significantly affected by lung anatomy with the greatest retention in centers of lung acini. Furthermore, there is significant remodeling of this transitional zone in humans exposed to ambient particulate matter.
Particulates; Lung disorders; Pulmonary system disorders; Respiratory system disorders; Bronchial asthma; Mineral dusts; Demographic characteristics; Sex factors; Racial factors; Age factors; Fibrosis; Humans; Respirable dust;
Author Keywords: Asthma; California; fibrosis; lung pathology; PM2.5; PM10; particulate matter; pigmentation
K.E. Pinkerton, Department of Anatomy, Physiology, and Cell Biology, University of California, 1321 Haring Hall, Davis, CA 95616-5270, USA
Environmental Health Perspectives