Effects of asphalt fume condensate exposure on acute pulmonary responses.
Ma JYC; Barger MW; Kriech AJ
Arch Toxicol 2000 Oct; 74(8):452-459
The present study was carried out to characterize the effects of in vitro exposure to paving asphalt fume condensate (AFC) on alveolar macrophage (AM) functions and to monitor acute pulmonary responses to in vivo AFC exposure in rats. For in vitro studies, rat primary AM cultures were incubated with various concentrations of AFC for 24 h at 37 degrees C. AM-conditioned medium was collected and assayed for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as a marker of cytotoxicity. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) production were assayed in AM-conditioned medium to monitor AM function. The effect of AFC on chemiluminescence (CL) generated by resting AM or AM in response to zymosan or PMA stimulation was also determined as a marker of AM activity. For in vivo studies, rats received either (1) a single intratracheal (IT) instillation of saline, or 0.1 mg or 0.5 mg AFC and were killed 1 or 3 days later; or (2) IT instillation of saline, or 0.1, 0.5, or 2 mg AFC for three consecutive days and were killed the following day. Differential counts of cells harvested by bronchoalveolar lavage were measured to monitor inflammation. Acellular LDH and protein content in the first lavage fluid were measured to monitor damage. CL generation, TNF-alpha and IL-1 production by AM were assayed to monitor AM function. In vitro AFC exposure at <200 microg/ml did not induce cytotoxicity, oxidant generation, or IL-1 production by AM, but it did cause a small but significant increase in TNF-alpha release from AM. In vitro exposure of AM to AFC resulted in a significant decline of CL in response to zymosan or PMA stimulation. The in vivo studies showed that AFC exposure did not induce significant neutrophil infiltration or alter LDH or protein content in acellular lavage samples. Macrophages obtained from AFC-exposed rats did not show significant differences in oxidant production or cytokine secretion at rest or in response to LPS in comparison with control macrophages. These results suggest that: (1) in vitro AFC exposure did not adversely affect cell viability or induce the release of high levels of inflammatory cytokines or oxidants; and (2) exposure of rats to AFC did not cause acute pulmonary inflammation or injury, and did not significantly alter AM functions.
Asphalt fumes; Fumes; Occupational exposure; Exposure levels; Exposure assessment; In vivo studies; In vitro studies; Laboratory animals; Animals; Animal studies; Cytotoxicity; Cytotoxic effects; Lung disorders; Pulmonary system disorders; Respiratory system disorders;
Author Keywords: Paving asphalt; Asphalt fume condensate; Alveolar macrophage; Pulmonary inflammation; Lung injury
Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505-2888, USA
Archives of Toxicology