Flammability of gas mixtures containing volatile organic compounds and hydrogen.
Liekhus K; Zlochower IA; Cashdollar KL; Djordjevic S; Loehr C
J Loss Prev Process Ind 2000 May; 13(3-5):377-384
An experimental program was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of some current methods for predicting the flammability of gas mixtures containing hydrogen and flammable or nonflammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. The specific VOCs tested were toluene, 1,2-dichloroethane, 2-butanone, and carbon tetrachloride. The lower flammability limits (LFLs) of gas mixtures containing equal molar quantities of the components were determined in a 19.4-1 laboratory flammability chamber using a strong spark ignition source and a pressure criterion for flammability. All but one of the LFL values for the individual components were in agreement with earlier literature values. However, the LFL of 1,2-dichloroethane was found to be significantly lower than the range of values reported for previous determinations in smaller chambers. Two methods for calculating the LFL of mixtures were considered. The Group Factor (atomic) Contribution Method was determined to be generally more accurate than the LeChatelier Method for estimating the LFL of the gas mixtures reported here, although the LeChatelier Method was usually more conservative. The Group Factor Method predicted higher values (nonconservative) for the LFLs of several mixtures than were experimentally measured. For the case of a mixture of hydrogen and carbon tetrachloride, the Group Method estimation of the LFL was seriously in error.
Flammable gases; Volatiles; Testing equipment; Toluenes; Fire prevention; Accident prevention; Explosive gases; Explosion prevention;
Author Keywords: Flammability; Volatile organic compounds; Hydrogen; Test-chamber; Prediction
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh Research Laboratory , Pittsburgh PA 15236, USA
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Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries