Thalidomide has been shown to have antiinflammatory and, more recently, immunomodulating properties, which are beneficial for the treatment of an ever-increasing list of immune related diseases. Although considerable knowledge regarding thalidomide's antiinflammatory properties has been acquired, relatively little is known about its immunomodulating properties in vivo. In this paper, a panel of immune assays was used to evaluate immunomodulation in female B6C3F1 mice treated intraperitoneally for 28 days with thalidomide (30, 100, or 150 mg/kg/day). Spleen antibody forming cell response was significantly enhanced by 37% in mice treated with 150 mg/kg/day, despite an 8% decrease in the percentage of Ig+ B cells. A significant stimulatory trend was observed for the cytotoxic T cell response across thalidomide treatment groups. An evaluation of the spleen leukocyte subpopulations revealed a 23% increase in the absolute number of CD8+ T cells in the 150 mg/kg treatment group and a 9 and 11% decrease in the absolute number of NK cells in both the 100 and 150 mg/kg thalidomide treatment groups, respectively. These findings demonstrate that, in addition to modulating spleen leukocyte numbers, thalidomide also stimulates murine humoral and cellular immune responses in vivo.