A comparison study of isocyanate sampling methods for 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer and HDI-based polyisocyanates was conducted in spray painting environments. This study compared the performance of the Iso-chek sampler against existing and proposed National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) monitoring methods for HDI-based isocyanates. Six methods for monitoring HDI monomer and polyisocyanate levels were compared. Fifty-eight sampling sets were collected during spray painting of aircraft and aircraft parts at four U.S. Air Force bases. Impinger and cassette samplers were mounted side-by-side on a mannequin located in paint overspray areas. For HDI monomer sampling results, there were no significant differences between NIOSH 5521, NIOSH 5522, OSHA 42, MAP (the proposed NIOSH method), and the IsoChek. For HDI-based polyisocyanates, NIOSH 5522, NIOSH 5521, Iso-Chek, and the Total Aerosol Mass Method (TAMM) were significantly different from one another. There was no significant difference between MAP and the NIOSH 5522 polyisocyanate sampling results. This study suggests the IsoChek and MAP sampling methods compare favorably with established methods for monitoring in HDI spray painting environments and the Total Aerosol Mass Method provides a reasonable upper boundary for estimating HDI polyisocyanate concentrations. The results also reemphasize aerosol sampling physics and sampler geometries must be carefully considered and appropriate samplers used when measuring exposures in spray paint environments where particulates are of the inhalable size.