On June 10, 1997 at approximately 11:00 a.m., a 20-year old male construction worker (the victim) was struck by a Caterpillar Model 966 D front end loader at a construction site and died 13 hours later. The victim was collecting manifests and directing the traffic flow for incoming trucks, which were unloading stone and sand at a concrete batch plant. After directing a dump truck to unload its load of sand, the victim was struck by the left rear of the front end loader as it was backing from the ramp leading to the sand and gravel hoppers. The front end loader backed over the victim with the left rear tire, which caused severe thoracic injuries that resulted in the victim's death. At the time of the incident, the backup alarm and front horn on the front end loader were not operational. NIOSH investigators concluded that, to prevent similar occurrences, employers should: ensure that backup alarms, horns, and other safety equipment are functional and tested daily on construction equipment on construction equipment which is so equipped. Equipment that has nonfunctioning backup alarms, horns, or other safety equipment should be removed from service until it is repaired; ensure that construction workers who are directing traffic flow are placed in a location where they are visible to equipment and vehicle operators. Traffic control procedures should be designed and implemented to allow for construction-site traffic and safe personnel mobility.