On July 11, 1998, two male fire fighters (Victim #1 and Victim #2) were injured while trying to escape from the path of a collapsing porch roof. They were part of a two-alarm fire response that was fighting a fire in a vacant, fully-involved, two-story dwelling and providing exposure protection to two nearby dwellings. Other fire fighters were conducting an interior attack in Exposure 4 (See Figure) while the two victims were manning a 2 and a half inch handline and providing exposure protection to the exterior of the same structure. They were positioned about 6 to 8 feet away from the main fire building when its front porch roof collapsed outward and at an angle, trapping Victim #1. Victim #1 was rescued, treated at the scene, and transported to the local hospital. Victim #2 was examined at the scene but refused further treatment. NIOSH investigators concluded that, to minimize the chances of similar occurrences, fire departments should: ensure that fire fighters are trained in the dangers of structural collapse and establish an appropriate collapse zone ensure that a separate Incident Safety Officer, independent from the Incident Commander is appointed.