In light of a comprehensive study conducted by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), the Institute concludes that vibrating handtools can cause vibration syndrome, a condition also known as vibration white finger and as Raynaud's phenomenon of occupational origin. Vibration syndrome has adverse circulatory and neural effects in the fingers, the signs and symptoms include numbness, pain, and blanching (turning pale and ashen). Of particular concern is evidence of advanced stages of vibration syndrome after exposures as short as one year. NIOSH recommends that jobs be redesigned to minimize the use of vibrating handtools and that powered handtools be redesigned to minimize vibration. Where jobs cannot be redesigned to eliminate vibration using tools such as pneumatic hammers, gasoline chain saws, and other powered handtools, engineering controls, work practices, and administrative controls should be employed to minimize exposure.