On October 29, 1997, a 22-year-old researcher at a primate-center field station was assisting with a routine group capture of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in a free-ranging corral. Personnel conducting the capture wore uniforms, disposable latex gloves, and surgical masks. Eye protection was not worn. During the transfer of an unidentified macaque into a squeeze cage, undetermined liquid from the animal entered the researchers eye. The worker wiped her eye at the time of exposure. Approximately 45 minutes later she flushed her eye with tap water for 23 minutes. There was no medical treatment or consultation at the time of the exposure. The researcher subsequently developed a Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) infection; despite intensive antiviral therapy, she died on December 10, 1997. This incident is the first documented case of a B virus infection resulting from an ocular exposure to macaque secretions. On November 8, 1997, the researcher sought medical attention for the first time because the exposed eye was red and swollen. At this time, the emergency department physician specifically looked for dendritic lesions of the cornea that are characteristic of ocular herpes infections. Although dendritic corneal lesions were reported in a previous fatal B virus infection, they were not seen in the present case. On the basis of the reported circumstances of the contact, it was initially concluded that B virus infection was unlikely.