Predicting flammability of gas mixtures containing volatile organic compounds.
Liekhus-K; Zlochower-I; Djordjevic-S; Loehr-C
International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention, and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions, 1998 Sep 2():250-266
One requirement regarding the transportation of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste containers currently limits the total concentration of potentially flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and flammable gases in the headspace of the waste container. Typical VOCs observed in the drums include aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, cyclohexane, as well as chlorinated hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes). Flammable gases, such as hydrogen and methane, may be generated in the containers by radiation-induced decomposition (radiolysis) of water and hydrocarbon waste forms. An experimental program was initiated to identify an accurate means for predicting flammability for gas mixtures containing one or more of the following species: hydrogen, carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, toluene, or 2-butanone. The lower flammability limits (LFL) of gas mixtures containing equimolar quantity for each species were determined in a 19-liter laboratory flammability chamber using a strong spark ignition source. The group factor contribution method was determined to be more accurate than the LeChatelier method for estimating the LFL for these gas mixtures.
Waste-transportation; Volatile-matter; Alpha-bearing-wastes; Containers; Flammability; Hydrogen; Carbon-tetrachloride; Chlorinated-aliphatic-hydrocarbons; Toluene; Ketones;
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Pittsburgh Research Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA 15236
1333-74-0; 56-23-5; 107-06-2; 78-93-3; 108-88-3;
NTIS Accession No.
Other Occupational Concerns;
Colloquium on Gas, Vapor, Hybrid and Fuel-Air Explosions, Proceeding of the International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention, and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions