Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, IC 9409, 1995 Jan; :1-28
The production, use, and emission of vanadium in the United States has been traced for the year 1991. Consumption was 3,300 tons, exports 1,285 tons, and imports 2,013 tons. About 98% of production was used in metallurgy; the remainder was consumed in chemicals, including catalysts. Total emissions to the environment in 1991 were estimated at about 3,100 tons, including emissions due to the combustion of coal and petroleum products. Emissions resulting from the production of ferrovanadium were 130 tons, and emissions from the production of steel about 6 tons. Dissipative losses, defined as losses that occurred during use or as a result of wear, were estimated to be no more than 3 tons. Disposal losses were estimated to be about 4,600 tons.
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, IC 9409