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Removal of metal cations from water using zeolites.
Sep Sci Technol 1992 Nov; 27(14):1969-1984
Zeolites from abundant natural deposits were investigated by the Bureau of Mines for efficiently cleaning up mining industry wastewaters. Twenty-four zeolite samples were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma. These included clinoptilolite, mordenite, chabazite, erionite, and phillipsite. Bulk densities of a sized fraction (-40, +65 mesh) varied from 0.48 to 0.93 g/mL. Attrition losses ranged from 1 to 18% during an hour-long shake test. The 24 zeolites and an ion-exchange resin were tested for the uptake of Cd, Cu, and Zn. Of the natural zeolites, phillipsite proved to be the most efficient, while the mordenites had the lowest uptakes. Sodium was the most effective exchangeable ion for exchange of heavy metals. Wastewater from an abandoned copper mine in Nevada was used to test the effectiveness of clinoptilolite for treating a multi-ion wastewater. The metal ions Fe3+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ in the copper mine wastewater were removed to below drinking water standards, but Mn2+ and Ni2+ were not. Calcium and NH4+ interfered with the uptake of heavy metals. Adsorbed heavy metals were eluted from zeolites with a 3% NaCl solution. Heavy metals were concentrated in the eluates up to 30-fold relative to the waste solution. Anions were not adsorbed by the zeolites.
Mineral-deposits; Mineral-processing; Minerals; Mining-industry; Waste-treatment; Metal-compounds; Metallic-compounds; Metallic-minerals; Heavy-metals; Copper-compounds
7440-70-2; 7440-23-5; 7440-66-6; 7440-50-8; 7440-43-9
Issue of Publication
Separation Science and Technology
Page last reviewed: September 2, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division