Several years ago, the U.S. Bureau of Mines investigated the use of alternative fuels in cupola ironmaking operations. The purpose was to evaluate the feasibility of conserving foundry coke because it is becoming more difficult to obtain this material owing to obsolescent equipment and environmental restrictions on coke manufacture. This paper represents a review of previously reported research. In early plant tests using calcined anthracite, it was demonstrated that this substitute could be used satisfactorily in some foundries, provided that a higher windbox pressure is used to supply adequate air input and that smaller size ranges of the reductants are used. In later pilot-scale experiments, it was demonstrated that anthracite or bituminous coals can replace coke up to 40 pct. Briquetted materials prepared from fuel fines and other waste products can be used only up to 20 pct as replacements for coke. Pitch-bonded coal fines or petroleum coke failed to produce metal that met gray iron specifications. Natural gas also was used as a partial replacement for coke in preliminary trials. Results showed that the melting rate can be increased significantly. Some scrap can be upgraded using this alternate fuel.