An initial evaluation of the flow of cobalt-containing materials in the United States was prepared. The following aspects of materials flow were included: cobalt released as a result of mining and processing other metals and minerals; scrap generation and subsequent recycling or cobalt recovery; and cobalt losses resulting from the generation of wastes, dissipative uses, and disposal of used products. Where possible, estimates were made to quantify the amount of cobalt lost from the materials flow. More than 2,000 metric tons (mt) of cobalt are released annually from mining and mineral processing in the United States, including 480 mt of cobalt in coal produced in the United States. Metallurgical industries examined in this study have well-established recycling of cobalt recovery practices. The petroleum industry recycles spent catalysts, and some chemical catalysts are also recycled. Losses generated during cobalt chemical and powder processing were estimated at 50 to 80 mt of cobalt annually. Losses from alloy processing and the manufacture of parts and products were estimated to be 360 mt. These industrial losses are greatly outweighed by an estimated 2,780 mt of cobalt consumed in the United States each year to make products that will ultimately be disposed of.