All types of mining are likely to change significantly in the 21st century. With concerns about the environmental health of the world growing steadily and the invasion of computers into all facets of our lives, mining as we know it today must change or become destined to be part of our history. The only way mining can remain a part of our future world is by development of new ideas, concepts, and technology. We have just begun to explore areas where computers can help us in the minerals industry. In the future computers will free us from requiring our workers to expose themselves to dust, noise, and unacceptable environmental conditions. At the same time, the efficiences of mining will increase significantly. This paper will explore some of the many computer applications that mining researchers expect to see in the future. Another area of concern is the environment of the world we live in and how mining must change to survive in it. The U.S. Bureau of Mines has been diligently pursuing new mining methods that lessen or eliminate the negative aspects of mineral extraction. These include selective techniques such as in situ mining and borehole slurry mining that use pipes and pumps to extract only the minerals, leaving the waste rock undisturbed. Other innovative mining techniques, such as the use of laser cutting techniques and microwave technologies, are discussed.