In 1976, the Resources Conservation and Recovery At (RCRA) aroused concern in the mining community about the regulation of mine waste streams under RCRA. In response, the U.S. Bureau of Mines initiated research in the late 1970's that addressed mine and minerals processing waste. Research included investigating improved environmental technology for metal, coal, nonmetal, and emerging industries such as oil shale, tar sands, peat, and lignite. Environmental issues escalated in the 1980's. Proposed regulations addressing control technology for mining and mineral processing wastes prompted the Bureau of Mines to become involved in 1985 in an advisory capacity to the regulatory agency, the Environmental Protection Agency. In fiscal year 1988, the Bureau of Mines initiated a research program designed to provide the minerals industries with cost-effective solutions for ameliorating environmental effects of mining. Bureau research has led to advances in the areas of acid mine drainage control and mitigation, subsidence prediction and control, and control and treatment of solid wastes resulting from mining and mineral beneficiation. The Bureau also conducts research seeking new methods to remediate abandoned mine lands. A discussion of mine waste issues is presented, followed by a summary of past and present research conducted by the Bureau of Mines.