The U.S. Bureau of Mines has conducted research to better identify, segregate, and recycle scrap materials containing vulnerable strategic and critical materials. This paper describes some of the techniques such as x-ray and optical emission spectroscopy, thermo- electric response, and the Bureau's new automated spark testing technique, developed for the identification and sorting of scrap metals. Results are reported that show the efficacy of these techniques on the identification of metallic scrap, consisting of stainless steels and co- and ni-base superalloys, in both a laboratory and a field setting. An important phase of the work was a full-scale technology transfer demonstration study conducted at a Department of Defense scrap yard in Cherry Point, North Carolina. Using Bureau-developed technology, the Department of Defense was able to improve the average return received for the sale of scrap metals from $0.09/Kg to $0.95/Kg.