Native amerinds in Missouri in prehistoric times are known to have exploited (though infinitesimally) surface deposits of galena, hematite, clay, sandstone, limestone, and chert. Historic mining in Missouri began in 1723 with the opening of the mine la motte in the southeastern portion of the state. The mine produced 8,000 tons of lead from galena up to 1804. Mining and mineral processing in Missouri are now billion-dollar-per-year enterprises, but these activities, past and present, have produced a physically and chemically diverse realm of waste materials. These wastes pose human health and environment problems, such as possible pollution of soil, surface water, and ground water by acid drainage and heavy metals. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, by way of its strawman process, is working with local governmental agencies and the private sector to establish rules and regulations for the management of nonfuel mining wastes under subtitle d of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, beginning with newly generated wastes, and subsequently with problems of existing wastes. This study aims to (1) provide an overview of the regulatory process for nonfuel mining and mineral wastes, (2) assess current practices of waste generation and disposal, (3) assess abandoned and inactive nonfuel mines and waste areas, (4) identify the most significant problems of waste disposal, (5) suggest areas of research to deal with the problems, and (6) construct a bibliography that will aid future studies of mining and mineral wastes.