This bulletin traces the development of the electroslag melting process from its modest beginnings to the present. Important basic mechanisms such as electrochemistry, thermochemistry, and heat transport are described. Since the choice of flux is a unique parameter in the electroslag process, two chapters are devoted to this subject. Electroslag melting experience for reactive metals, base metals, ferrous alloys, superalloys, and the refractory metals, both inside and outside the Bureau of Mines, is outlined. The final two chapters are devoted to a related melting scheme, variations of the process, and what may lie in the future for electroslag melting.