Feasibility of in Situ Retorting of Green River Oil Shale, Utilizing Nuclear Explosives for Fracturing.
Proc 3D Internat Atomic Energy Agency-peaceful Nucl Explo Panel Vienna Austria Pp 99-121 :99-121
Although hydraulic fracturing and chemical high explosives may be used to fracture shallow and thin beds, nuclear explosives may be required for adequate fracturing of the Green River oil shale in the center of the Piceance Basin of Colorado, where there are deposits as thick as 2,000 feet under as much as 1,000 feet of overburden. Experiments have been conducted at the Bureau of Mines Laramie Energy Research Center in batch-type retorts accommodating particle- size ranges expected to be present in a nuclear-explosive created chimney. Results of these tests have been somewhat encouraging and indicate that the creation of adequate permeability through carefully designed and controlled fracturing techniques is a critical factor.
Proc. 3D Internat. Atomic Energy Agency-peaceful Nucl. Explo. Panel, Vienna, Austria, Pp 99-121