Fracture Surface Mapping With the Scanning Electron Microscope and Its Application to Failure Analysis.
Scanning Electron Microscopy, Proc Part IV 1974 :8 pages
The capabilities of the scanning electron microscope offer a simple direct method for systematically mapping microtopographic features on fracture surfaces that can provide clues about the origins, kinds, and movement directions of fractures in laboratory test samples from a variety of deformed and/or fragmented materials. The method is particularly suitable for fractographic analysis of compositionally and structurally complex materials such as rocks, in which a fracture may have multiple origins and a surface topography without obvious visible features indicative of movement directions. The technique is illustrated by mapping fracture surfaces in blocks of bituminous coal broken under low velocity impact. Movement maps reveal that coal tends to fracture along natural planes of weakness, that the planes exhibit river features indicative of brittle fracture in tension, and that the fractures propagate from impacted area into and through the coal along the planes of weakness.
Scanning Electron Microscopy/1974, Part IV Ed. by O. Johari and I. Corvin, Proc. Part IV 1974