This publication is the U.S. Bureau of Mines' most comprehensive report on the changing materials use patterns and intermaterial competition as related to new materials. To understand how and where these materials can, or will, be applied requires an expansion of the scope of inquiry past the raw material stage, into the manufacturing and use stages, with an analysis of the interaction of cost and technology over the whole lifecycle. Any change must be considered within a framework of the implications that affect the allocation of materials, and a determination of what preferences society can, or should, express. These material shifts have major impacts on our economy and our environment. Volumes 1 and 2 of the New Materials Society presented a framework for the advanced material studies. Volume 3 presents the results of current studies in intermaterial competition. These studies principally focus on the growth of plastics penetration into traditional mineral markets.