The Bureau of Mines investigated hot rolling and forging characteristics of experimental ductile iron castings made with charges ranging up to 70 pct of foundry pig irons and 95 pct of a steelmaking pig iron. Both sand and permanent mold castings were evaluated. Between 1,550 deg and 1,950 deg f (843 deg and 1,066 deg c), most castings could be rolled to 90 pct reduction or forged to 70 pct without serious cracking. Some were deformed further. Charge and composition have less bearing on workability than on subsequent properties. Nickel produced some adverse effect, as did poor nodularity. Permanent mold castings, which had finer nodules and primary carbides, could be worked as readily as sand castings at 1,750 deg and 1,950 deg f (954 deg and 1,066 deg c). Plasticity improved with temperature. Small billets were also forged cold to 50 pct reduction without cracking.
AFS Trans., V. 84, No. 76-29, PP. 437-448