The Bureau of Mines investigated effects of combinations of tin, copper, and chromium, which stabilize pearlite, on the as-cast, ferritize-annealed, and normalized properties of ductile iron castings. Tin was varied up to 0.24 pct, copper to 1.50 pct and chromium to 0.18 pct. Microstructures of keel block castings were assessed and hardness, tensile, and impact properties were evaluated. As-cast properties of castings containing lead in combination with tin and copper were also evaluated.
AFS Trans., V. 84, No. 76-94, 1976, PP. 265-280