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Recovery of Heavy Minerals from Sand and Gravel Operations in the Southeastern United States.
NTIS: PB 200 699 :25 pages
This report summarizes an investigation to determine the occurrence and recoverability of heavy minerals in sand and gravel operations in the southeastern United States. A total of 61 samples from 34 sand and gravel operations in Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina were studied. Heavy minerals, in amounts ranging from 3 to 400 pounds per ton, were found in all of the samples. Eighty percent of the samples contained 20 to 40 pounds per ton of heavy mineral. Valuable heavy minerals, in order of decreasing amounts, were ilmenite, kyanite, zircon, rutile, and monazite. Large-scale concentration tests were made on five samples from four major producers. Gravity concentration by Humphreys Spirals and tables resulted in bulk heavy mineral concentrates that graded from 82 to 98 percent total heavy minerals. Mineral recoveries ranged, in percent, as follows: ilmenite 60 to 95; zircon 96 to 100; kyanite 37 to 77; rutile 89 to 100; and monazite 96 to 100. Separation studies on the gravity concentrates showed they would respond to high-tension and high-intensity magnetic separation techniques to produce individual mineral concentrates. Work done in cooperation with the University of Alabama.
IH; Report of Investigations
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS: PB 200 699
AL; GA; NC; SC;
Page last reviewed: March 11, 2019
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division