This Bureau of Mines report reviews the mineral industry of the Black Hills Area, including Butte, Custer, Fall River, Lawrence, Meade, and Pennington Counties, South Dakota.; and Crook, Niobrara, and Weston Counties, Wyoming. It includes discussion of geological occurrence, processing, and potential of 27 commodities that have been produced from the nine-county area. The value of mineral production exceeds $70 million annually. Gold and petroleum account for two-thirds of the total, followed by clays, cement, sand and gravel, and rock. The combined mineral industries annually consume 268 million kilowatts of electrical energy, 933 million cubic feet of gas, and 2 million barrels of fuel oil. Water consumption is about 10,000 gallons per minute. About 2,700 persons are employed on a year-round or significant part-time basis.