This Bureau of Mines report describes and evaluates iron ore resources in California and Nevada and analyzes the California and Japanese iron ore markets in which these resources will be used. The competitive position of California-Nevada ores, in these markets, was estimated by comparing regional iron ore prices, production costs, and transportation costs with those of foreign suppliers. Resources were determined to be sufficient to produce the equivalent of 585 million tons of 64-percent iron pellets at a price of less than $15 per ton delivered at California ports. Much higher tonnage could be produced at higher prices. Iron ore requirement of the California iron and steel industry will increase to an estimated 15.9 million tons by the year 2000. A study of the iron ore production potential of California-Nevada deposits and of out-of-state sources indicated that this ore requirement can be supplied most economically by California-Nevada ores. Iron ore import requirements of the Japanese iron and steel industry will increase to an estimated 150.0 million tons by the year 2000. A study of price trends in this market indicated that very little California-Nevada iron ore will be sold in Japan after 1973 when existing sales contracts expire. Iron ore exports might be economically possible if ore could be transported from California to Japan at ballast rates as backhaul on existing petroleum shipping.