The Bureau of Mines conducted a research study of the geochemistry of the Smackover Formation to determine what geochemical relationships are useful in exploration for and production of oil and gas. Samples of oil, gas, brine, and rock were collected and analyzed. The oilfield brines were analyzed by methods recommended by the American Petroleum Institute and by tentative methods of the American Society for Testing and Materials. The crude oils were analyzed by Bureau of Mines methods; the gas, by Bureau of Mines methods; and the rocks, by wet-chemical, atomic absorption, and neutron activation methods. The results were correlated and interpreted, and several geochemical relationships useful in exploration and production were found. These include the type and class of brine, organic constituents in the brine, redox potential, in situ temperature and pressure of brine, degree of sulfate and carbonate saturation of brine, and halide concentrations in the brine.