Wettability measurements and laboratory waterflood tests were compared under a wide variety of conditions. Experiments were conducted with synthetic and natural crude oils, treated and untreated outcrop and oilfield sandstone cores and synthetic brines with and without caustic, detergent, or phosphate additives. Measurements were made on equilibrated and unequilibrated systems at 77 deg and 150 deg f. Wettability was evaluated by the Bureau of Mines method from capillary pressure curves determined with a centrifuge. The waterflood data were fitted by empirical curves; the parameters of the curves characterize primary and subordinate production and also give the ultimate oil recovery. Results showed that wettability measurements at 77 deg f were useful predictors of recovery efficiency in waterflood tests run at both temperatures. Oil recovery in the early stages of waterflooding increased with increasing water wettability; however, the ultimate recovery was highest at a slightly oil-wet condition. The oil displaced at highest speed in the centrifuge was correlated with ultimate recovery in waterflood tests. Chemical additives to the brine sometimes lowered wettability and also sometimes improved waterflood recovery, but wettability and recovery were not correlated with additives present. The effect of additives on recovery in waterflooding was best seen in water-oil ratio curves.
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