Five possible sources of water for waterflooding of petroleum reservoirs in the arid San Joaquin Valley of California were considered. Three of them (water produced with petroleum, water from a shallow saline aquifier, and waste irrigation water) were analyzed chemically; laboratory information for one (sea water) had been developed during a previous study. A series of laboratory tests made on the fifth source (fresh water) determined the solubility of calcium sulfate dihydrate in water. Laboratory analyses included the following: chemical analyses of water produced with petroleum and waste irrigation water; solubility of calcium sulfate dihydrate in water and brines; the effect of excess sulfate on the solubility of calcium sulfate in brines; the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria; and the permeability of cores from a petroleum reservoir to air, to water from other petroleum reservoirs, and to waste irrigation water. The results showed that most of the waters and mixtures of waters are compatible with petroleum reservoir waters and are generally suitable for injection. The calcium content of some of the formation waters is quite high, and care must be taken to prevent precipitation of calcium sulfate dihydrate. The permeability of the few cores tested was about the same to water and brines as to air, indicating that formation damage due to clay swelling will not be serious.