The federal Bureau of Mines conducted research to develop methods of removing phosphorus from the earthy, calcareous hematite ores of the Birmingham, Alabama, Iron District while simultaneously improving the grade and recovery of the iron values prior to furnacing. An attempt was also made to identify the phosphorus minerals present in the ores. The ores contained about 36 percent iron, 12 to 16 percent cao, 15 to 20 percent hydrochloric acid insolubles, and 0.30 to 0.36 percent phosphorus. Fractions containing 5 to 15 percent phosphorus were isolated from the ores. Collophanite, ca3p2o8.Nh2o, a member of the apatite group, was the only phosphate mineral identified. Beneficiation methods using flotation and reduction roasting with magnetic separation yielded good grade iron concentrates, but were not as effective for reducing the phosphorus content of concentrates. Reduction roasting followed by fine grinding, magnetic separation, and acid leaching gave iron concentrates containing 62.5 percent iron and 0.04 percent phosphorus with an iron recovery of 82.9 percent and a phosphorus rejection of 93.7 percent. Reoxidation of reduced magnetic concentrates followed by acid treatment gave iron concentrates 58.1 percent iron and 0.02 percent phosphorus with 89.6 percent recovery of the iron and 96.5 percent rejection of the phosphorus.