Precious metals (pm)-gold, silver, and the platinum-group metals (PGM)(platinum, palladium, rhodium, iridium, osmium, and ruthenium)- play a key role in the electronic and electrical industries. The recycling of these materials has a significant impact on the amounts that must be imported each year. For example, approximately 25 pct of the total demand for pm by all industrial uses is met by recycled material. The pm are essential in electrical and electronic applications because of their low contact resistance and resistance to corrosion and oxidation. A large amount of U.S. demand for pm is met by recovering metal values from electronic scrap. Typical processing steps for the recovery of pm from electronic scrap include hand disassembly or mechanical preparation followed by incineration, separation, and classification. Final recovery is usually performed by leaching and precipitation, followed by flux melting, refining, and casting. The final purity and uses of the recycled materials are comparable to those of materials produced from virgin ore.