Lunar mining and in situ lunar resource utilization will be major factors in supporting a lunar base and provide a possible way to supply space vehicles with fuel and life-support needs. An overview of the lunar program is presented, beginning with the Apollo missions and leading to the current lunar mining scenarios and plans. Review and understanding of past and current lunar mining research activities and plans provide a better insight for the future outlook of lunar mining and resource extraction. The effects of lunar environment, surface characteristics, and geology on lunar mining are interpreted in terms of mining systems requirements based on the experience of Apollo astronauts and U.S. Bureau of Mines research results using analogue lunar rocks. The results of an assessment of various mining scenarios are presented, and recommendations for the development process are outlined. Current terrestrial mining technology, supplemented by Apollo mission observations, provides a basis for developing efficient lunar mining methods and systems.